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Par Value - permalink

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  • Par value is the face value, or named value, of a stock or bond.

    With stocks, the par value, which is frequently set at $1, is used as an accounting device but has no relationship to the actual market value of the stock.

    But with bonds, par value, usually $1,000, is the amount you pay to purchase at issue and the amount you receive when the bond is redeemed at maturity.

    Par is also the basis on which the interest you earn on a bond is figured. For example, if you are earning 6% annual interest on a bond with a par value of $1,000, that means you receive 6% of $1,000, or $60.

    While the par value of a bond typically remains constant for its term, its market value does not. That is, a bond may trade at a premium, or more than par, or at a discount, which is less than par, in the secondary market.

    The market price is based on changes in the interest rate, the bond's rating, or other factors.


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  • Browse Related Terms:   Callable bond,   Convertible bond,   Indenture,   Noncallable,   Prerefunding,   redemption,   Sinking fund

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Passive income - permalink

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  • You collect passive income from certain businesses in which you aren't an active participant.

    They may include limited partnerships where you're a limited partner, rental real estate that you own but don't manage, and other operations in which you're an investor but have a hands-off relationship.

    For example, if you invest as a limited partner, you realize passive income or passive losses because you don't participate in operating the partnership and have no voice in the decisions the general partner makes.

    In some cases, income from renting real estate is also considered passive income. On the other hand, any money you earn or realize on your investment portfolio of stocks, bonds, and mutual funds is considered active income. That includes dividends, interest, annuity payments, capital gains, and royalties.

    Any losses you realize from selling investments in your portfolio are similarly active losses.

    Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations differentiate between passive and active income (and losses) and allow you to offset passive income only with passive losses and active income with active losses.


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  • Browse Related Terms:   Capital preservation,   January Effect,   Passive losses,   return,   Return on investment,   Risk,   Risk Tolerance,   Sole proprietor,   Wash sale

Passive losses - permalink

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  • You have passive losses from businesses in which you aren't an active participant. These include limited partnerships, such as real estate limited partnerships, and other types of activities that you don't help manage.

    You can deduct losses from passive investments against income you earn on similar ventures. For example, you can use your losses from rental real estate to reduce gains from other limited partnerships.

    Or you can deduct those losses from any profits you realize from selling a passive investment. However, you can't use passive losses to offset earned income, income from your actively managed businesses, or investment income.


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  • Browse Related Terms:   Capital preservation,   January Effect,   Passive income,   return,   Return on investment,   Risk,   Risk Tolerance,   Sole proprietor,   Wash sale

Passively managed - permalink

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  • An index mutual fund or exchange traded fund is described as passively managed because the securities in its portfolio change only when the make-up of the index it tracks is changed.

    For example, a mutual fund that tracks the Standard & Poor's 500 Index buys and sells only when the S&P index committee announces which companies have been added to and dropped from the index.

    In contrast, when mutual funds are actively managed, their managers select investments with an eye to enabling the fund to achieve its investment objective and outperform its benchmark index. Their portfolios tend to change more frequently as a result. They also tend to have higher fees.

    The performance of passively managed indexed investments and their risk profiles tend to correspond closely to the asset class or subclass that the index tracks. They tend to be more popular in bull markets when their returns reflect the market strength and less popular in bear markets when active managers may provide stronger returns.


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  • Browse Related Terms:   Actively managed fund,   Audit committee,   Buy side,   Enhanced index fund,   Institutional investor,   Managed account,   Management fee,   Money manager,   Portfolio manager,   Prudent man rule,   Wrap account

Pass-through security - permalink

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  • When a corporation or government agency buys loans from lenders to pool and package as securities for resale to investors, the products may be pass-through securities.

    That means regular payments of interest and return of principal that borrowers make on the original loans are funneled, or passed through, to the investors.

    Unlike standard bonds, whose principal is repaid at maturity, the principal of a pass-through security is repaid over the life of the debt.

    The best known pass-throughs are the mortgage-backed bonds offered by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Ginnie Mae. However, you can also buy pass-through securities backed by car loans, credit card debt, and other types of borrowing. Those are known as asset-backed securities.


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  • Browse Related Terms:   Bankruptcy,   Cash flow,   creditor,   Liability,   net worth,   Securitization

Past-due item - permalink

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