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- A ruling negotiated at the first Conference of the Parties (COP 1), which took place in March, 1995, concluding that the present commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are not adequate. Under the Framework Convention, developed countries pledged to take measures aimed at returning their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The Berlin Mandate establishes a process that would enable the Parties to take appropriate action for the period beyond 2000, including a strengthening of developed country commitments, through the adoption of a protocol or other legal instruments. See United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Conference of the Parties.
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- Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), Annex I Countries/Parties, Annex I Parties, Conference of the Parties, Joint implementation, Kyoto Protocol, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), World Meteorological Organization