All > Science > Biotechnology and Genetics > Food Biotechnology
- A building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. Together, the nucleotides form codons, which when strung together form genes, which in turn link to form chromosomes. (See Chromosome, Codon, Complementary nucleotides, Dideoxynucleotide, DNA, Gene, Oligonucleotide, RNA.)
Susan Allender-Hagedorn and Charles Hagedorn - Cite This Source - This Definition
- A nucleoside with one or more phosphate groups linked at the 3'- or 5'-hydroxyl of a pentose sugar. When the sugar is ribose, the nucleotide is a ribonucleotide; when it is 2-deoxyribose, the nucleotide is a deoxyribonucleotide. RNA and DNA are polymers of, respectively, ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates and deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates. Nucleotides containing the bases adenine, guanine and cytosine (A, G, C) occur in both DNA and RNA; thymine (T) occurs only in DNA, and uracil (U) only in RNA. Ribonucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates for which a specific base is not assigned are abbreviated NMP, NDP, and NTP, while deoxyribonucleoside mono-, di-, and tri-phosphates are abbreviated dNMP, dNDP, and dNTP. Otherwise, the "N" is replaced by the base letter abbreviation. See: base pair.
UN Food and Agriculture Organization - Cite This Source - This Definition
- A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule.
USDA CSREES - Cite This Source - This Definition
- deoxyribose (2-deoxyribose), Nucleoside, ribose, thymidine