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(...TEH-truh-i-oh-doh-THY-roh-neen) A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and contains iodine. L-3,5,5'-tetraiodothyronine increases the rate of chemical reactions in cells and helps control growth and development. L-3,5,5'-tetraiodothyronine can also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat thyroid disorders. Also called T4, thyroxin, and thyroxine.
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. It may inhibit the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells.
(Ã¢ÂÂ¦ AR-jih-neen) One of the twenty common amino acids (building blocks of proteins). L-arginine is being studied as a nutritional supplement in the treatment and prevention of cancer and other conditions. Also called arginine.
(... as-PA-ruh-jih-nayz) A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer. It is an enzyme taken from the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. Also called asparaginase and Elspar.
A form of carnitine, which is a substance made in the muscles and liver. It can be given as a supplement to prevent and treat carnitine deficiency in patients who are receiving chemotherapy for cancer or undergoing dialysis for kidney disease. Also called levocarnitine.
(... gloo-TA-mik A-sid) One of twenty amino acids (molecules that join together to form proteins). L-glutamic acid may help nerve cells send and receive information from other cells. It is being studied for its ability to decrease or prevent nerve damage caused by anticancer drugs. Also called glutamic acid.
(... nor-JES-trel) A form of the hormone progesterone that is made in the laboratory and used to prevent pregnancy. It is being studied in the prevention of ovarian and endometrial cancer, and in the treatment of other conditions. L-norgestrel is a type of oral contraceptive. Also called levonorgestrel and Plan B.
(...THREE-oh-dy-HY-drose-FIN-guh-seen) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Also called safingol.
An instrument that uses very small amounts of fluid on a microchip to do certain laboratory tests. A lab-on-a-chip may use body fluids or solutions containing cells or cell parts to diagnose diseases. Also called microfluidic device.