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  • That portion of the ionosphere existing between approximately 160 and 400 km above the surface of the Earth, consisting of layers of increased free-electron density caused by the ionizing effect of solar radiation. Note 1: The F region reflects normal-incident frequencies at or below the critical frequency (approximately 10 MHz) and partially absorbs waves of higher frequency. Note 2: The F1 layer exists from about 160 to 250 km above the surface of the Earth and only during daylight hours. Though fairly regular in its characteristics, it is not observable everywhere or on all days. The principal reflecting layer during the summer for paths of 2,000 to 3,500 km is the F1 layer. The F1 layer has approximately 5 × 105 e/cm3 (free electrons per cubic centimeter) at noontime and minimum sunspot activity, and increases to roughly 2 × 106 e/cm3 during maximum sunspot activity. The density falls off to below 104 e/cm3 at night. Note 3: The F1 layer merges into the F2 layer at night. Note 4: The F2 layer exists from about 250 to 400 km above the surface of the Earth. The F2 layer is the principal reflecting layer for HF communications during both day and night. The horizon-limited distance for one-hop F2 propagation is usually around 4,000 km. The F2 layer has about 106 e/cm3. However, variations are usually large, irregular, and particularly pronounced during magnetic storms.

    F Region image

  • Browse Related Terms: F Region, flutter, meteor burst communications, near-vertical-incidence skywave, power margin, propagation mode, radio fadeout, reflecting layer, reflecting loss, reflection, skip distance, skip zone, sky wave, Sporadic E, traveling wave, tropospheric scatter, tropospheric wave

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All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

  • A form of telegraphy for the transmission of fixed images, with or without half-tones, with a view to their reproduction in a permanent form. [47CFR] In this definition the term telegraphy has the same general meaning as defined in the Convention. [NTIA] [RR] 2. The process by which fixed graphic images, such as printed text and pictures, are scanned, and the information converted into electrical signals that may be transmitted over a telecommunications system and used to create a copy of the original, or an image so produced. Note 1: Wirephoto and telephoto are facsimile via wire circuits. Radiophoto is facsimile via radio. Note 2: Technology now exists that permits the transmission and reception of facsimile data to or from a computer without requiring hard copy at either end. Note 3: Current facsimile systems are designated and defined as follows:

    • Group 1 Facsimile: The mode of black and white facsimile operation, defined in ITU-T Recommendation T.2, that uses double sideband modulation without any special measures to compress the bandwidth. Note 1: A 216 × 279-mm document, i.e., an 8½ × 11-inch document, may be transmitted in approximately 6 minutes via a telephone-type circuit. Additional modes in this group may be designed to operate at a lower resolution suitable for the transmission of 216 × 279-mm documents in 3 to 6 minutes. Note 2: The CCITT frequencies used are 1300 Hz for white and 2300 Hz for black. The North American standard is 1500 Hz for white and either 2300 or 2400 Hz for black.
    • Group 2 Facsimile: The mode of black and white facsimile operation, defined in ITU-T Recommendation T.3, that accomplishes bandwidth compression by using encoding and vestigial sideband, but excludes processing of the document signal to reduce redundancy. Note: A 216 × 279-mm document, i.e., an 8½ × 11-inch document, may be transmitted in approximately 3 minutes using a 2100-Hz AM/PM/VSB, over a telephone-type circuit.
    • Group 3 Facsimile: The mode of black and white facsimile operation, defined in ITU-T Recommendation T.4, that incorporates means for reducing the redundant information in the signal by using a one-dimensional run-length coding scheme prior to the modulation process. Note 1: A 216 × 279-mm document, i.e., an 8½ × 11-inch document, may be transmitted in approximately 1 minute or less over a telephone-type circuit with twice the Group 2 horizontal resolution. The vertical resolution may also be doubled. Note 2: Group 3 Facsimile machines have integral digital modems. Note 3: An optional two-dimensional bandwidth compression scheme is also defined within the Group 3 Facsimile Recommendation. Note 4: When any CCITT or CCIR Recommendation is modified by the ITU-T, the modified document is designated as an ITU-T Recommendation.
    • Group 3C Facsimile: The Group 3 digital mode of facsimile operation defined in ITU-T Recommendation T.30. Note: Group 3C is also referred to as Group 3 Option C or as Group 3-64 kb/s.
    • Group 4 Facsimile: The mode of black and white facsimile operation defined in ITU-T Recommendation T.563 and CCITT Recommendation T.6. Note 1: Group 4 Facsimile uses bandwidth compression techniques to transmit, essentially without errors, a 216 × 279-mm document, i.e., an 8½ × 11-inch document, at a nominal resolution of 8 lines/mm in less than 1 minute over a public data network voice-grade circuit. Note 2: When any CCITT or CCIR Recommendation is modified by the ITU-T, the modified document is designated as an ITU-T Recommendation.
    • Type I Facsimile: The mode of digital black and white facsimile operation defined in MIL-STD-188-161 used for transmission of bi-level information (e.g., text and simple graphics). Note: Type I facsimile is interoperable with the black-and-white facsimile mode of STANAG 5000 and is designed for operation over noisy communications links such as tactical channels.
    • Type II Facsimile: The mode of gray-scale facsimile operation defined in MIL-STD-188-161 used for transmission of multi-level information (e.g., photographs). Note: Type II facsimile is interoperable with the black-and-white facsimile mode of Type I or STANAG 5000 equipment and is designed for operation over noisy communications links such as tactical channels.

  • Browse Related Terms: clock, embedded processor, facsimile (FAX), master clock, Plenum, Radio Regulations, turnkey

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

All > Technology > Telecommunications

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